A roas.. err toast! To ‘The Definitive Suspension Blog’ by nickj

A local Miata friend sent me this link, nay! this Gospel according to Leeroy (I mean nick) Jenkins, written in 2011. Leero .. I mean nick has been active in the Bay Area Miata community for some period of time and has contributed many a post on Miataforum, largest hub of Miata-related activity. But I had no idea this definitive work of scholarship existed until recently. My shame for overlooking it these years. While I feel it could be left alone, there is so much wisdom here that needs to be shared I must highlight the depth and beauty of this work.

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Although Lee.. err nick hasn’t been able to find time to update his blog in the 5 years since his Definitive Suspension Blog was posted (it’s December 2016 as of this writing), this seminal influential ground-breaking Definitive work deserves to be spread far and wide. As Mark Antony famously said, ‘Friends, Romans, countrymen – lend me your ears! I come to praise Caesar not to bury him!’ So let it be with Caes .. I mean nick. (Or is it the other way around?)

In reading this seminal work, I still feel like this:

tim-and-eric-mind-blown

I could easily stop here, as I feel everything that truly needs to be said, has been said. But… not being one to leave a topic without adding my $0.02, I feel my fingers are compelled to continue expressing more of the expressible …

I will share this Homeric poem and, in the ancient tradition of spoken-word, will humbly add a line or two upon this living work of art. And now, for your consideration:

===

Having done a little suspension work on my own ’97, I of course know as much as all the other self-proclaimed suspension gurus. (which we will see is really quite a lot… ) However, the other gurus have one advantage over me. They don’t have to actually drive a Miata with a particular suspension setup in order to know how it rides and handles in every situation and at every suspension setting. (no, the rules of logic and seat time make absolutely NO sense at all but never mind that some self-professed suspension gurus have tested literally DOZENS of setups on their and customers cars). I haven’t figured out how to do that yet. Maybe I need to meditate more. (Yes, meditation is a scientifically-proven benefit. Say it with me now .. OMMM!) Okay, I’m probably getting a little too harsh going on about self-proclaimed suspension gurus. Sorry. (Not harsh at all! You are just sharing your wisdom from your vast library of experience! Prithee, continue kind NON-self-professed suspension guru!)

Let me continue. (With baited breath we await thy missive, good sir)

Suspension setups can be broken down into five basic categories — spring rates, shocks, sway bars, ride height, and alignment settings.(Oh, but what about bump stops, aren’t those a separate category? Wait, I see you talk about those later on. Right… good, good.) Obviously there are many options within each of these categories, including vendor options.

One thing you can see from the (NOT self-professed suspension guru) chart (that I, the Almighty, the Irrepressible, Definitive nickj pulled from the posterior of a magical source of that is holy in this vasst beautiful cosmos) is that every type of driving benefits from aftermarket sway bars. (different ‘self-professed suspension guru’ comments added in parentheses).

I don’t want to get too technical about the purpose or function of sway bars, but you often see on the Internet a lot of confusing and sometimes conflicting advice about sway bars. The reason it’s confusing and conflicting is that a lot of it is just plain wrong. (However, because I’m above all that, I won’t give any explanation about the purpose of function of sway bars, because the Definitive Suspension Blog ness of my amazingness prevents even an attempt to explain their purpose or function). I don’t know how some of these myths got started, but they keep getting repeated, and someone once said if you repeat something long enough, it becomes the truth even if it’s not true. (There are a lot of words here and I don’t really know what I’m saying, but in some alternate universe it makes a lot of sense).

The main thing you need to know about sway bars is that they act like helper springs in a turn. (although the technical use of ‘helper springs’ by other NON self-professed suspension gurus and mechanical engineers is for a spring that is co-axial to the main coil spring to soften the initial rate of that main coil spring. But no matter, please continue!) They don’t act like helper springs under braking or acceleration, but they do in turns. (Unless the road is bumpy, but continue!) A stiffer sway bar is just the same as stiffer springs. (Except it’s technically not, because they’re different) Running a stiffer sway bar up front is the same as running stiffer springs in front, (except it’s not) and running a stiffer sway bar in back is the same as running stiffer springs in back. (except it’s not, but it sounds really good to repeat myself, doesn’t it? wait, I feel an OMMM coming on!) But only in turns. (or roads that aren’t perfectly smooth ’cause sway bars CONNECT ONE SIDE OF THE SUSPENSION TO THE OTHER, SO BY DEFINITION THEY’RE NOT THE SAME AS A SPRING!) Stiffer springs are good in turns because they keep the car from leaning too much, which keeps the tires from leaning too much, which helps them stick better. (wait, what kind of spring are you talking about, the torsion spring which is a sway bar, or the main coil spring that is also a spring?)

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Stiffer springs also mean a harsher ride. (remember this for the bottom of the quote). It’s one of the compromises we make for better grip and more responsive handling. (except when you actually DECREASE GRIP from too stiff a spring). So we might want to know if sway bars act like helper springs on bumps. (oohkay this again?!). They do, but only about half as much as they help in the turns, and sometimes less. (Only if the bump is SYMMETRIC which is never guaranteed to be the case in The Real World). The result is that sway bars give us stiffer springs where we want them, in the turns, but not when we don’t want them, on the bumps. (But wait, don’t you just say stiffer springs also mean a harsher ride? Wow that sounds very confusing, and very guru-y, thank you!)

(Except that’s NOT TRUE when you don’t have a symmetric bump across both front or both rear tires. If the bump is not symmetric, which is true for 99% of real world bumps and surface imperfections other than the occasional speed bumps. Because for those 99% of Real World bumps you have a HARSHER RIDE with a stiffer sway bar because the sway bar is COUPLED between left-and-right. And in fact Mazda designed the Miata with double-wishbone or short-long arm suspension which has better camber gain in a turn than a strut suspension, so there is less need for extremely stiff springs or sway bars except for specific racing situations. And this ESPECIALLY TRUE when using a larger rear bar. Why? For three reasons:

1 – If you notice where your butt is position relative to the front axle and to the rear axle, you are practically sitting on the rear axle in the Miata. This means everything you do at the rear has an amplified effect for impact to driver comfort. A stiffer sway bar will make the ride more noticeably harsher than a stiffer front bar.

2 – A stiffer rear bar will tend to make a car more skittish on throttle (since the Miata is rear wheel drive). For this reason, as Mazda saw fit to use a very small 11 or 12mm bar for the majority of applications, it makes no sense to use a much bigger-than-stock rear sway bar

3 – The rear sway bar especially with stock end-links or especially Racing Beat poly-urethane end-links (the latter you for some crazy reason think are acceptable) has a non-linear stiffness gain as the suspension moves into compression. Non-linearity at the rear of a rear-wheel-drive car is bad, especially a short wheelbase car like the Miata. A quality spherical end-link and a minimally-sized rear bar are essential for best ride quality and confidence-inspiring driving, whether near or at the limit).

But please, continue O Great One!)

For now we get into some serious numbers and scary concepts, so prepare yourself!

A lot of sway bar talk revolves around what size bars to run front and rear, and whether to run a rear bar at all. This talk usually centers around the dreaded (DUM DUM DUUUMMM!) front roll couple percentage (FRC%), a concept that all self-proclaimed suspension gurus understand implicitly. (naturally you we they all do, like the meaning of life!). FRC% is based on the ratio of spring rates (well, actually it’s the ratio of total roll stiffness) front to rear, (Wait, I thought the FRC, or front roll couple, is the percentage of front roll couple vs. the TOTAL roll couple, meaning the sum of the front and rear? Maybe my textbooks are wrong. Thank you for clarifying oh NON-gur of gurus!) FRC is based on total spring rates, including springs, sway bars, and bushings (what about bump stops?). A higher FRC% means the front is stiffer, (the front receives a higher percentage of the weight transfer) a lower FRC% means the rear is stiffer (receives a higher percentage …) . A stock Miata has an FRC of around 58% (did you calculate that value for yourself, good sir, or did you borrow it from some un-named source? or perhaps did you conjure it from that vASSt suppository of knowledge?) and it’s usually a good idea to keep it there, or maybe a little lower for more nimble (i.e. tail-happy) handling. (But wait, what about the bump stops? Don’t those affect the FRC? because those are a spring too…)

So let’s consider the rear sway bar question. The reason we get bigger sway bars in the first place is because we want stiffer springs in the turns without sacrificing ride comfort (ummm well not really, but you’re the NON-self-professed suspension guru so I guess so). So it just doesn’t make sense to get a big bar for the front only. (NO?! Wow, it seems so many people have found exactly that to be the case, but they didn’t talk to you first).

We want the same advantages at the rear of the car that we enjoy in front. (The advantage of less grip, worse ride on uneven surfaces, and less ability of the rear differential to help put power down exiting turns? You mean that advantage to running a bigger rear bar?) The only exception to this is autocrossing, where bigger rear bars are sometimes against the rules, and can also reduce traction coming out of those tight autocross turns. (the exception is anyone who wants a vehicle that works at 100% capability, not handicapped because some vendor wanted to sell a ‘matched set’ because they make more money and brainwash more people that way). The way I figure it, all of this no-rear-sway-bar nonsense (WOW, what a wonderful guru-sounding statement!) got started by 1) autocrossers or 2) some guy who had a bad set of aftermarket springs and found his car handled better without the rear bar, then posted it all over the Internet (it couldn’t be because people actually tested for themselves and found it to work better, for a variety of situations not just autocross? No, it couldn’t be for real-world, tested on thousands of vehicles reasons, but only the musing of the Definitive Suspension Blog writing nickj, who is not a self-professed suspension guru but plays one on TV).

So if we’re keeping the stock springs and only getting aftermarket sway bars, and we want the same friendly FRC% (but what about the bump stops?!) that we have now, we add helper springs (sway bars) both front and rear. (riiight umm helper springs…) Adding only the front bar will significantly increase the FRC%, and the car will plow like a pig. (maybe yes, maybe no – as many Stock or Street class autocrossers will tell you.You can also make other changes, like to the bump stops stiffness and length, to the alignment or both). So we get both. As it turns out, FM sway bars (for example) at the recommended settings do decrease the FRC% slightly, but it’s barely enough to notice, it just adds a little more nimbleness. (What a load of horseshit only a complete idio.. oh wait, wrong meeting. But yes, a load of bollocks. FM rear 5/8″ (15.8mm) sway bar is a HUGE increase over the stock 11 or 12mm and makes a stiff-riding Miata that might handle ‘tight’ but will also be MUCH less forgiving on rough surfaces).

If we’re getting aftermarket sway bars and changing springs at the same time, we’ll choose our spring rates so that the FRC% remains close to stock. (Umm.. please help me oh wise and powerful NON-self-professed suspension guru: do you mean the FRC without considering the stock bump stops, or the FRC WITH the stock bump stops? I IS CONFOOSED). That way we get to use bigger sway bars front and rear. If for some reason we can’t find the spring rates we want, or we buy a package (e.g., coilovers) that has a lower FRC% than stock, only then would we consider running a front sway bar only. But that would not be optimal. (Ummm… why? Because NOT running a bigger rear sway bar is against some law of guru-dom that we lowly mortals don’t understand?! PLEASE HELP ME UNDERSTAND!! Wait, I feel another OMM coming on…)

Here’s something important to keep in mind. FRC% isn’t the only thing that determines whether your car understeers or oversteers. (Yes, yes, THIS is where he mentions bump stops!) Tires, tire pressures, and alignment settings affect it as well. (Wait for it…) Generally, a performance alignment reduces understeer, so if you get an aggressive alignment and you don’t want your Miata to be any more tail-happy than it already is, you need to compensate with an FRC% that’s a few points higher than stock. (Okay, makes sense sort of.. still waiting..)  You can make those kind of changes with sway bar adjustments, if you have adjustable sway bars. (yes yes, oh gur.. I mean NON-guru! I can’t wait any longer! What about the bump stops?)

Alas, we would be frustrated with this lingering question of the importance of bump stops for several more paragraphs. So please, dear friend, be patient! The pieces are all coming together… are they not?! So a slight detour on the topic of

shocks and coilovers

In Miata parlance, a coilover is a shock/spring combination with a moveable spring perch that lets you adjust the ride height at each corner. I can’t say whether or not coilovers are superior to regular springs and shocks, but to me the only real advantage of coilovers is height adjustability, and that’s not a big one. (hmmm really? can’t think of good reasons for it?) Setting ride height is cool,(wow! cool! Not ‘extremely useful,’ ‘very important,’ or ‘essential for controlling ride quality’ – but cool. I feel my brain exploding again!

tim-and-eric-mind-blown

That sounds totally Zen dude. Very “NON-guru”-guru-sounding. I dig it!) but it’s unlikely you’ll do it much, especially when you add the cost of an alignment and corner-weight session each time you do it. (well if you used your height adjustment IN THE BEGINNING when you get the coilover setup, you would first drive the car a little to see how it all feels, adjust the height to where you need it for the roads you’re dealing with, THEN get an alignment and if you wish a corner-balancing which is not required though very nice. In that respect, it sounds like having the height adjustment is far better than NOT having it, yes oh Definitive Suspension Blog creator nick? Or are we self-professed suspension gurus just OMing too much?! OMM! )

They may work great together, but they’re going be the vendor’s idea of a good time, and maybe not yours or mine. (That would certainly be true for some or many vendors, but not for the meditating self-professed suspension guru you are indirectly talking about. That individual makes a point to ask customers what they need their vehicle for and takes time to select everything about the setup, including spring rates, sway bar(s), bump stops, alignment, expected ride heights to START WITH AND ADJUST FROM THERE). If you can find a coilover vendor who will let you specify spring rates, you’re better off. (YES! Absolutely! Bravo! I mean really, bravo! okay we are back on track!)
I particularly don’t like the lower-priced coilovers. They’re very popular, but I think that’s mostly among drivers who’s top priority is lowering the car. The shocks they use aren’t usually adjustable (that really depends on the coilover) and I don’t think they’ll last very long, maybe 40K tops. (that’s a very DEFINITIVE-sounding number indeed Mr. NON-self-professed suspension guru! can you give some non-guru-sounding reasons for this?) Some people point to the fact that Flyin’ Miata sells bargain coilovers, and if Flyin’ Miata sells them they must be good. I actually think Flyin’ Miata sells them to make a profit, and doesn’t really have a lot of respect for them. (a reasonable attitude to take).
I prefer mix and match suspensions over coilovers. (and dear nickj, upon what scientific basis do you base your NON-self-professed suspension guru preference? I AM CONFOOSED AGAIN!). Springs are available from a variety of sources in a lot of different rates, and you get to choose. (yes, like jelly beans). You also have a lot of great shock manufacturers to choose from, (yes, like Everlasting Gobstoppers) and the shocks in the chart are just the more popular examples. (because what’s popular and cool and you can choose from is the DEFINITIVE way to make a great suspension! Because who needs shock dyno testing, or measuring bump stop spring rate, or adjustable height to make sure you don’t bottom out those popular shocks? But please dear sir, help us understand how to choose!).

Some shocks are adjustable, and adjusting them can change the handling of a Miata dramatically for different types of driving. Among the adjustable shocks, Tokico Illuminas are generally considered high-quality and comfortable for daily driving, and even spirited driving with the proper adjustments. (Please make sure to mention which generation Tokico Illumina you mean, and what happens if you run a too-short bump stop on a 1990-1997 Tokico Illumina {they break!} ). Konis aren’t considered to be as comfortable, (not guru-sounding at all) and they’re not as adjustable, but they have a good damping curve for autocross and track, (how funny, the super-charged Miata a self-professed suspension guru drove to a 2nd place in the Dixie National Tour had Tokico Illuminas and worked very well at a stiffer setting, because it’s NOT JACKING DOWN where the Koni Sport would have horribly jacked down in the same situation). especially when the rebound damping is turned up. (please share your NON-self-professed scientific evidence of this so we can behold the full glory of your statement! Pretty please?!) I’ve had both of these shocks on my Miata at one time or another, and I tend to agree with this consensus. (Very scientific indeed).

Another popular aftermarket shock is the KYB AGX, which is sometimes described as a low-priced Illumina. (except the KYB AGX has a much higher proportion of rebound damping and jacks down while the Illumina does not, but you’ll tell us that right?) I’ve driven a car with AGXs and found them very comfortable. (Very scientific and non-guru-sounding. Who needs facts and graphs! Thank you dear sir!)

Bilsteins are also really popular for the Miata, in part because they’re standard equipment on some Miatas, and also because they use a monotube design. Monotube shocks can have a slight performance advantage over concentric tube shocks if they’re properly designed, however they’re also more prone to failure from external damage. Personally, I’d be more concerned with how well a shock works than how it’s designed, but that’s just me. Bilsteins aren’t adjustable, but that hasn’t stopped people from changing the damping by swapping out the internal valves. Not as easy as, say, turning a knob on the side of the shock, (because turning the knob ALWAYS does EXACTLY what you NEED the knob to do, right?! as opposed to designing the entire damping curve with many factors in mind. Thank you again, NON-self-professed suspension guru! You’re my hero!) but there are people who do it. I find it slightly amusing that Bilstein proponents who downplay the need for adjustability in a shock are the first to send their Bilsteins out for revalving when they change springs. (really? These people are the FIRST to send them out for revalving? Maybe they got the wrong valving to begin with?! And just by changing the knob when you change the springs on your KYB AGX, or Koni Sport, or Tokico Illumina, you have ensured OPTIMAL suspension tuning? That all sounds very scientific and not guru-y at all)

Buckle up! Some wonderful science and NON-self-professed suspension guru information ahead!

Probably the most important thing about picking shocks is making sure they have enough damping for the spring rates you’re running. (but not making sure they don’t have TOO much damping?) Illuminas are fine with stock springs on the lower settings, and they can handle springs up to about 400 in/lbs if you turn them all the way up. (Wow, where did this wonderful deep insight come from? Please share your sources of scientific information!). Springs much stiffer than 400 lbs. will feel underdamped, like the shocks are wearing out. Konis are less able to handle the really stiff springs because they’re only adjustable in rebound. (Funny, many people including this narrator have used Koni Sport with VERY stiff springs, up to 700 lb/in, and found them to control very well! But they do indeed cause jacking down from the very strong rebound damping so it’s not always a comfortable ride. But STIFFER SPRINGS are BETTER for the TURNS as you said before so it’s okay to turn the Koni up! Please, continue O Great and Wise nickj!). You can use them with 500 lb. springs, but they’re optimal in the 300 lb. range. (Wow, again, where is this deep powerful insightful knowledge coming from? Oh we ask for sources dear non-guru guru!). Because of the lack of jounce adjustment, (ACHOO!) stock springs feel overdamped with Konis, (actually, Koni Sports on full soft were designed to be very similar to the factory Miata shocks, but please continue…) which isn’t a big problem but it makes them ride harsher than other shocks. (except it doesn’t, although the Illumina would have more compression, but the KYB AGX has more rebound and less compression than the Koni on full soft and would also jack down more. But please continue). Konis are also available in a Race version, which have a lot of adjustments (not just one adjustment, but many adjustmentS ?! what is this new magic of which you speak?!) on them and can handle almost any spring rate. However they will pretty much blow up anybody’s suspension budget. (You mean like my mind has been this whole definitive time?)

tim-and-eric-mind-blown
These aren’t the only options of course, but they are the most popular. (and we know what’s popular is DEFINITIVELY what’s best! HOORAY! such wisdom! I mean science, I mean.. oh carry on.. ) Some people try to keep costs down by using a cheaper brand, or going with a lower-priced shock from one of the popular brands, like Tokico Blues instead of Illuminas. This seldom ends well. You’re better off buying used. (because you know every used shock was lovingly installed, driven carefully, not abused?? I A CONFOOSED O Great One!) All of these shocks are good for at least 50K miles, and some a lot more. (that is indeed VERY definitive, but I can’t see your science. PLEASE HELP! I feel like a NON-non-guru is taking over and I don’t understand!)

Ride height

I like to think the car’s height should be set for the best compromise of ride and handling. (wait a second – that sounds very guru-y! Can you give some numbers and comparison points? Like what spring rates would be ideal for what ride heights? I know those self-professed suspension gurus can). Many people feel the height should be set by how the car looks. The numbers in the chart above are not based on looks, and if you want to go lower that’s fine, (but is it REALY fine?!) so long as you keep in mind that the other recommendations in the chart probably won’t work for you either.

Lowering your Miata has a couple of positives, and a long list of negatives. Lowering the car affects ground clearance, wheel travel (WOW!), camber geometry (whoah MOAR SEXY!), wheel clearance (you mean..?!), roll centers (BANG ZOOM!), and bump steer (like bump and grind?! or an accident with cattle?!). The negatives don’t get too bad until you go below about 12.5″ front/13″ rear. (Thank you for that DEFINITIVE bit of wisdom, O Great One! But doesn’t the R-package front steering tie-rod need to be added to allow that lowered height, such as the ’93 Limited Edition and the ’94-97 R-package Miatas were equipped with?).

I like to think that Mazda designed everything about the Miata with the idea that it would sit a certain height above the ground, and not two inches lower. (Yes, makes sense). For an autocross or track-only car, the negatives aren’t as important or they can be corrected, (are you SURE – scientifically-speaking – they aren’t as important? How do you correct them?) but on a daily driver you’ll notice them every day. (but especially every other day).

Okay, we have learned SO much to this point! It is so very informative in that DEFINITIVE, NON-self-professed suspension guru, factually-based, sources-rich, real-world validated and race-track tested way! But we still didn’t hear about bump stops (I thought they were important…!?) but we have come to alignment which is a delightful subject. Take a deep breath and continue on my friends!

Alignments

Unless you’re looking for the ultimate in grip and you don’t care about tire wear, I wouldn’t get cute with alignment settings. (Yes yes, MOAR science! More facts! More numbers! Teach us!) Anything negative up front is an improvement over the stock settings, and setting the rear about half a degree more negative than the front is a good balance. (but wait, what is the reason for this? And is there a reason why you should ever use a different alignment than this? Surely, O Great NON-guru-guru, there is some case that would cause exception be made to the Cosmic Rule?

Yes?

No?!)

I like zero toe-in all around. (I like to keep my toes inside my socks too… wait that’s not what you mean.. hmmm. But this magical toe you speak of, prithee what is it – can you give a picture or example, and when would someone use a magical value OTHER than zero? Can you please shine your NON-guru-guru light upon us?!)

It’s simple, predictable, and easiest on the tires. (yes, gurus like to make things simple, indeed. Because Life is anything but situational and complex!). Some autocrossers prefer a little toe-in or toe-out in front or in back,

( I found this image to helpin-toe-walking )

but I’m not really sure they all agree on which tire should point where.

( well, if you have enough negative camber up front, per Milliken and Milliken in Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, about 1/10 as much toe-out vs. negative camber is useful to prevent the tires from self-steering due to the presence of the negative camber

Wait who said that?!)

a little There are a couple of “boutique” alignments floating around the Internet, and if you think it’s cool that your alignment has a name, go for it, (YAY! KOOL and the GANG!)

61udsc9avsl

but I personally think it’s unreasonable to assume that one alignment can work for everybody and every suspension. (Oh yes, that does indeed make good sense and we are so much better informed as to what alignment to use and why, O Definitive One!)

Other Suspension Considerations

Something that’s not in the chart but should be considered with any upgrade on an NA Miata (90-97 model years) is a switch to NB shock mounts. (But how does one make this switch, and it is true that Pepsi is better than Coke?!) Some aftermarket suspensions include mounts, which is great, (OR IS IT?!) but for any other upgrade it’s really worthwhile to spend another $150 for NB shock mounts and the related hardware. (But O Definitive One, where do we find these magical mounts of NB?!) You’ll never (OOH so much science here!) get an NA suspension to work as well as an NB no matter what you do with bumpstops (AHHH! That magical word we’ve waited SOO LONG to hear! Moar please MOAR!).

Speaking of bumpstops, (yes yes yes yes YEESSS!!! I am SEATING on the EDGE of my… WAIT… ) 

jfep

which I’ll try to do without getting on my soapbox again, (Nononono, Neo there IS NO Soapbox! For you are NOT a self-professed suspension guru! There is only The One from which you are channeling from your vast and amazing experience!)

there_is_no_soapbox

stock NB bumpstops will work with just about any suspension you put on an NB, or any NA with NB suspension hardware. It gets tricky on an NA with NA mounts, at least in back, because the car wasn’t given a lot of suspension travel to begin with and it wasn’t designed for long, compressible bumpstops.(WOW, this sounds so exhaustively researched, so comprehensive, so DEFINITIVE! even better than this lowly work of pseudo-scholarship from a self-professed suspension guru! MOAR MOAR MOAAARR!!)

So you see a lot of confusing and sometimes conflicting advice about bumpstop size and length on the Internet. (There are inded several options, but someone made an application guide which really helps, and wallijohn posted this helpful information, too. But please carry on O Great One!) You can avoid all that by just switching to NB hardware. (That absolutely sounds like the very best solution…

oh, wait…

dead_99_miata_rear_bump_stop

umm…

O Great One? Hello? Hellooooooo ? McFly?)

So we will draw our tribute to a close here. But be sure to spread this Gospel far and wide, because it is so Definitive, so comprehensive, so rich with fact and a wealth of experience and specific, actionable information (not to mention you can contact The Great One for more assistance, as long as you sign up for the closed forum and are approved!) that it deserves a place in the World of Miata Suspension Information.

But remember, this is absolutely NOT the work of a self-professed suspension .. (oh bollocks, I can’t take it any more!)

 “Let’s do this! LEEROY JEN-KINS!”

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